Jim Davis, Director of Advanced Solutions & Technical Support, Allied Electronics & Automation
Industrial control panels can, and sometimes do, use many different power and control voltages ranging from 480 Vac down to 24 Vac, and 110 Vdc down to 5 Vdc, with occasional designs using voltages outside these ranges. We've previously written about power distribution for control panels generally, so in this article I'd like to specifically look at DC power supplies for industrial control panels, automation systems and instruments.
One of the main things to consider in terms of power supplies is the tradeoffs that come with employing high or low voltage. Higher voltages result in lower current flows, which means thinner gauge wire can be used, however, lower voltages are safer for workers, require less insulation and allow for the use of more compact devices. With that in mind, I want to focus on 24 VDC power supplies, their popularity for use in industrial control panel signaling voltage, and how these power supplies can be implemented for reliable control circuits.
What are Common Control Voltages?
Control voltages are often chosen based on what is common for an application or industry. Basic hardwired controls such as on/off switches and lights may use 120 Vac because it is a readily available everywhere in North America. A large numberof motor control panels use 480 Vac for hardwire control, some older applications utilize 277 Vac. These potentials were originally selected because they are available directly from the utility with no need for a transformer needed. . On-vehicle applications favor 12 Vdc and other battery-friendly voltages and building HVAC systems traditionally use 24 Vac supplied by small transformers.
While some automation devices can work with many different voltages, designers will find that most control system components such as PLCs, HMIs, smart relays, I/O modules and instruments tend to all accommodate 24 Vdc. This makes 24 Vdc power supplies and distribution a convenient choice for control system designs, but there are other reasons why there are so widely employed.
· Regulations. NFPA 70E and OSHA consider 50 V and above as hazardous voltage, and often stipulate that power supplies are below this threshold.
· Safety.Electrical shock hazards are greatly diminished at 24 Vdc, making these power supplies much safer for installers, operators and maintainers in the industrial environment.
· Power delivery. Most automation devices have relatively low power requirements and draw small reasonable currents at 24 Vdc.
How is 24 Vdc Control Voltage Generated?
Simple and passive transformers are used to transform one AC voltage to another. However, power supplies are needed to rectify AC voltage to a DC voltage. There are also devices called converters for converting one DC voltage to another, but these are far less common.
What Types of 24 Vdc Power Supplies are Available?
Power supplies fall into one of two main families - linear and switching. Linear is an older, bulkier and more expensive technology, however it features very stable DC voltage output with little or no electrical noise or ripple. Linear power supplies are very good for delicate electronics and other high-sensitivity applications. Switching power supplies, the standard for automation purposes in North America, convert AC to DC using pulse-width modulation (PWM). Early designs had high output electrical noise, but modern switching power supplies provide an excellent output in a small form factor with high efficiency, so they are currently the most popular form of DC power supply.
How are DC Power Supplies Specified?
DC power supplies are rated by the nominal input AC and output DC voltages, the output current in amperes (A) and the effective power rating in watts (W). All power supplies generate heat when operating, therefore the input watts are always higher than the output watts, with the difference being the heat dissipated. This heat in watts can be readily converted to BTUs for thermal calculations if needed to size panel cooling components. DIN rail mounting options are popular, as are panel-mount, especially for larger versions, and many versions are available in a touch-safe housing. Some DC power supplies must be mounted in a specific orientation maintain cooling and proper operations. Additionally, high output power supplies may require de-rating if used above a threshold temperature, which means users must utilize at lower output current to prevent overheating.
Click image to enlarge
Figures 2a & 2b: DC Power supplies range in size from small DIN rail-mount versions to large panel-mount styles.
Other DC Power Supply Features and Benefits
In addition to the fundamental considerations I've outlined above, 24 Vdc power supplies have a number of additional features and benefits over other options, including:
· Multiple inputs and outputs: Most power supplies nominally have one input and one output voltage, but some have multiple or selectable voltages, which can help users select and stock fewer devices.
· Adjustable voltage: An adjustment so users can calibrate the output voltage.
· Remote sensing: An extra connection allowing the power supply to adjust the voltage as needed to accommodate voltage drop downstream.
· Parallel redundancy: Rated to run in parallel for redundancy reasons, so that if a power supply fails, the remaining unit(s) carry the load. Some power supply manufacturers offer redundancy diode modules for this purpose.
· Load sharing: Rated to run in parallel so several smaller power supplies can carry the load of one larger unit.
· Inrush/boost: Better ability to start up even under heavy loading conditions.
· Protection: Self-protects against over-voltage and over-current conditions.
· NEC Class 2 Current Limiting: Required for open field wiring methods.
· Condition "OK" monitoring: Provides an LED indicator and/or relay contact confirming proper operation.