Technical Features

May 2023
DC/DC Flyback Converter

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Figure 1: Power stage of the flyback converter (simplified)

Isolated flyback converters often use optocouplers in the feedback loop to regulate the output voltage. As part of the compensation circuit, its parameters such as CTR influence the control loop and must be taken into account in the flyback converter design. The flyback converter is an isolated switching power
Date:
04/01/2024
Combining Lowest RDS(on) + SMT for Space-Limited, High-Performance Apps

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Figure 1: The Qorvo SiC FET – a ‘cascode’ of a Si-MOSFET and SiC JFET

The performance of wide band-gap (WBG) semiconductor switches such as silicon carbide cascode FETs (‘SiC FET’ henceforth) (Figure 1) and SiC MOSFETs is closely tied to its package. At the pure technology level, nanosecond switching speed and low specific on-resistance result in very low losses, allowing mu
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Date:
05/30/2023

Industry-leading class D amplifiers at every power level: Part 4 of 4 Editorial Series sponsored by Infineon; “Looking to the future of class D audio amplifiers”

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Figure 1. Typical application circuit for Infineon’s MERUS™ MA5332MS MCM class D amplifier

­The fourth and final article of this series about using class D amplifiers discusses the benefits that Infineon’s MERUS™ MA53x2MS series of multi-chip modules (MCM) brings to mid-power audio applications ranging from 50 to 200 W. The benefits that Gallium Nitride (GaN) semiconductor technology could
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Date:
05/23/2023
Industry-leading class D amplifiers at every power level: Part 3 of 4 Editorial Series sponsored by Infineon; “Class D amplifier solutions for high-power audio applications”

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Figure 1. Functional block diagram of Infineon’s MERUS™ IRS2092 class D audio amplifier driver

­The previous article in this 4-part series discussed the challenges of designing low-power audio equipment and showed how Infineon’s MERUS™ multilevel class D amplifiers could be used to overcome them. This third article looks at the figures of merit for audio amplifiers used in high-power audio applications (250+ W), like theatres, concert venues, mobile audio, and subwoofer applications.
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Date:
05/23/2023
Industry-leading class D amplifiers at every power level: Part 2 of 4 Editorial Series sponsored by Infineon; “Multilevel Class D audio amplifiers for compact consumer application”

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Figure 1. The output stage of a traditional class D amplifier

­The first article in this series discussed how class D amplifiers generally offer substantially higher efficiency levels than other amplifier classes in audio applications. Nonetheless, they still face significant design challenges in low and mid-power compact consumer applications like portable sound systems an
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Date:
05/23/2023
Industry-leading class D amplifiers at every power level: Part 1 of 4 Editorial Series sponsored by Infineon; “Class D Amplifier Solutions For Audio Applications at Every Power Level”

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Figure 1. Block diagram of a class D audio amplifier

­Making yourself heard can be challenging in a world where everyone seems to have something to say. However, one way to gain an advantage is by choosing a sound system that delivers unsurpassed audio quality using a high-efficiency class D amplifier. In this four-part series of articles, Infineon discusses
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Date:
05/23/2023
­Introduction Effective galvanic isolation is crucial in high-voltage applications to prevent unwanted leakage currents from flowing between two parts of a system with different ground potentials (GPD) [1]. As depicted in Figure 1 (left), the DC return current from the input to the output can cause a potentia
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Date:
05/14/2023
Reliability and Performance for Motor Control Encoders

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Figure 1: Using RS-485 to interface between the absolute encoder slave to servo drive master for closed-loop control of an ac motor

­The primary purpose of a motor control encoder is to measure angular position and speed measurement. Figure 1 shows a motor control signal chain using RS-485 transceivers and microprocessor to interface between the absolute encoder (ABSencoder) slave and industrial servo drive master for closed-loop control of
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Date:
05/01/2023
What's Driving the Micromobility Market?

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Figure 1: EV bike rack

­Since 2015, more than 195 countries have adopted the Paris Agreement, an international treaty that seeks to combat climate change and its resulting effects. As signatories seek ways to slash carbon emissions, boost urban air quality, and reduce noise pollution in urban areas, interesting mobility solutions ha
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Date:
05/01/2023
Robust Power, Communication, and Safety for Automation

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Figure 1: An M23 cordset showing a 23 mm receptacle with a female 8-pole insert (Image source: Molex)

­Industrial automation has transformed the modern factory. Communication is now just as important as the electricity used for the drives and servo motors of the large machines that manufacture goods, and safety is critical as humans and robots work close together. The challenge for the automation engineer is se
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Date:
05/01/2023
Enhancing Motor Performance in Demanding Systems with Advanced Current Sensing

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Figure 1: Electrification is affecting many different facets of our world – but the biggest and most visible impact may be in the area of vehicles - electric cars, buses, trucks and even bicycles

­One of the best ways to address motor-control circuit optimization is with advanced current-sensing solutions. We live in a time of disruptive growth, as new technologies are both benefiting and challenging society, with advances ranging from alternate energy systems to wide-bandgap semiconductors. One as
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Date:
05/01/2023
Field Oriented Control of Brushless DC Motors

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Figure 1: BLDC motor six-step trapezoidal compared with sinusoidal drive waveforms

­There are many types of motors with their own pros and cons, but brushless DC (BLDC) types have become ubiquitous for their excellent efficiency, high performance, long life and low electrical and audible noise. If they have a downside, it is the relative complexity of the electrical drive, usually requiring th
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Date:
05/01/2023
Growing GaN Ecosystem for BLDC Motor Drives

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Figure 1: EPC Motor Drive Reference Design Power boards

­So far, silicon-based power devices have been dominant in inverter electronics, but today their performance is nearing its theoretical limits. There is an increasing need for higher power density. Gallium nitride (GaN) transistors and ICs have the best attributes to satisfy BLDC inverter needs. The super
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Date:
05/01/2023
The Role of IGBTs in Increasing Motor Drive Efficiency

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Figure 1: Illustrates a typical motor drive design that has a Power Factor Correction (PFC) input rectifier

­Designs using motor drives, such as for electric vehicles, pumps, and fans, are being pushed to reduce the overall costs as well as decrease energy consumption in these same electric motor applications. Therefore, the selection of highly efficient devices for electric motors and their drives, and making sure ea
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Date:
05/01/2023
Equivalent Circuit Modelling for Li-ion Batteries

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Figure 1: Polarization evident for Li-Ion

­Lithium-ion batteries have been used during the last years in many applications as the most common energy storage devices (EV, stationary storage batteries etc). They gained wide popularity due to their high energy and power density, light weight, and wide working temperature range. However, they suffer from po
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Date:
05/01/2023
Tech Trailblazer: Class 4 Fault-Managed Power Systems for 5G and More

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Figure 1. Class 1, 2, 3, and 4 maximum voltage and power levels (NEC 2023 Edition)

­Power systems designers have, for decades, been limited by the strict guideposts on Classes 1, 2, and 3 circuitries, but the NEC’s newly defined Class 4 power (as laid out in Article 726) will offer a compelling alternative. Fault-Managed Power Systems and How They Work To understand the opportunities Clas
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Date:
05/01/2023
Power Modules for Custom Designs

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Figure 1: 1000W Brick on board solution

­AC-DC and DC-DC power modules became a popular method of creating non-standard or custom AC-DC and DC-DC power supplies when they were introduced approximately 30 years ago. Compared to the newer products now available on the market, they were large in size and had relatively low efficiencies. It became a re
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Date:
05/01/2023
Advanced Gate Driver ICs for Robust, Higher Density Industrial Power Supplies

Courtesy of Infineon

­Safely achieving increasingly higher power densities in compact form factors is among the goals for today’s switch mode power supply (SMPS) designs used in industrial and other applications. To meet these goals, all aspects of the design must be considered. This includes: a totem-pole power factor correction (P
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Date:
05/01/2023
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